modern automobile is a complex collection of
mechanical, chemical, electrical, hydraulic,
and other types of physical systems, all of
which have strong connections to mathematics.
During the 19th century, scientists developed
ways to mathematically model energy, and through
these models they were able to build the practical
engines that led to the modern car.
(4 stroke) Cycle:
1832-1891), a scientist, developed
a version of the internal combustion
engine that was efficient enough for
practical automobiles. Today, his Otto
thermodynamic cycle is the scientific
foundation for most gas-powered cars.